The combined effect of volume and price/mix in Europe was flat. Revenue was 8 percent lower, mainly due to the divestment of Building Adhesives. From a regional perspective, performance was mixed, with volumes declining in Western Europe and Southern Europe, while there was positive development in Eastern Europe. Restructuring measures and various operational efficiency improvement programs led to a lower cost base, but the ongoing restructuring spend meant that total operational costs were higher. As a result, operating income was lower than the previous year.