The performance improvement program announced in October 2011 is making good progress with positive impact on both variable and fixed costs. The initiatives have cumulatively resulted in €381 million savings and we are on track to deliver the full €500 million in EBITDA at the end of this year. The program is structured around business unit adaptations and operational excellence, which contribute the majority of the benefits, while functional excellence is an important enabler. Various actions taken in operational excellence address product complexity reduction, sourcing optimization, manufacturing and distribution excellence, and margin management across the entire organization.
Since the announcement of the program, the number of employees was reduced by over 2,500 FTE, of which around 800 were in 2013. In the first half of 2013, we have spent €69 million on restructuring activities. We expect the costs for the full year 2013 to be in the order of €325 million, with the additional benefits becoming visible in 2014. Examples of additional restructuring activities include the upcoming initiatives in European Decorative Paints and Functional Chemicals. We are embedding continuous improvement in our businesses, moving from project based actions.